Posted by: Chris Maloney | February 24, 2012

How Bad Is Fluoride In the Water For Long-Term Health?


Image via Wikipedia

Here’s the rub.  In the midst of the screaming about fluoride, both sides are right.

Fluoride, in tiny but necessary quantities, does help with dental caries, or cavities to most of us.  It hardens the enamel, and is most helpful for children forming their permanent teeth.

So, for that age group, testing for low fluoride and supplementing with fluoride if none is available would be a wise choice.

But we don’t do that.  We fluoridate everyone’s drinking water instead.  Now, in adults with low fluoride, having fluoride added does seem to prevent new cavities somewhat, so there is a sub-group of the adult population that benefits from have fluoride in their water.

What of the rest of us?  Well, the answer is complicated.

Short answer:  We don’t know.

We haven’t done large scale studies of the effects of fluoridation on humans over an extended period.  Completely understandable, except we have done the studies on creatures like fish.  Fish are a commodity, a cash crop, and someone stands to lose a lot of money if they are stunted and have poor bone structure.  So too much fluoride is a bad thing for fish.

Too much fluoride is also a really bad thing for rats.  They have oxidative stress from too much fluoride.  It affects their hearts and other organs.

Now, rats and fish aren’t humans, and you can’t use those studies to predict what will happen to a human population.  But it occurs to me that we have a huge database of people on fluoridation and non-fluoridation, and that an enterprising epidemiologist could really get his or her career completely destroyed by researching the topic.

Because way too much fluoride is definitely not a great thing.  It gets grouped with arsenic when we’re talking about industrial contamination.  It hardens bones, making them brittle, and does bad things to body organs.  Yes, the doses from industrial exposure are much greater than those from properly fluoridated tap water, but no one is doing the research to tell us if other sources of fluoride add enough to  water exposure to some of us into the industrial range of exposure.

Now, are we all going to keel over from fluoride poisoning?  Not necessarily.  A number of other factors affect how much damage fluoride does.  Exercise, antioxidants, fiber to decrease absorption rates, all of these affect how much damage happened to the little rat subjects.  So we should be particularly careful to take care of ourselves when we’re exposed to fluoride.

And maybe, just maybe, we should research what the long-term effects are.  If we can ever stop shouting at one another.

Below are seventeen pages of abstracts.  If you’ve come across a long-term human study, I’d love to see it.  According to the experts at Cochrane, we don’t have them.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Dec 7;12:CD007592.

Fluoride supplements (tablets, drops, lozenges or chewing gums) for preventing dental caries in children.

Tubert-Jeannin S, Auclair C, Amsallem E, Tramini P, Gerbaud L, Ruffieux C, Schulte AG, Koch MJ, Rège-Walther M, Ismail A.


Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry, CHU of Clermont-Ferrand, University of Auvergne, 11 Boulevard Charles de Gaulle, Clermont-Ferrand, France, 63000.



Dietary fluoride supplements were first introduced to provide systemic fluoride in areas where water fluoridation is not available. Since 1990, the use of fluoride supplements in caries prevention has been re-evaluated in several countries.


To evaluate the efficacy of fluoride supplements for preventing dental caries in children.


We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group’s Trials Register (to 12 October 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 12 October 2011), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 12 October 2011), WHOLIS/PAHO/MEDCARIB/LILACS/BBO via BIREME (1982 to 12 October 2011), and Current Controlled Trials (to 12 October 2011). We handsearched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors.


We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing, with minimum follow-up of 2 years, fluoride supplements (tablets, drops, lozenges) with no fluoride supplement or with other preventive measures such as topical fluorides in children less than 16 years of age at the start. The main outcome was caries increment measured by the change in decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces (DMFS).


Two review authors, independently and in duplicate, assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, and carried out risk of bias assessment and data extraction. In the event of disagreement, we sought consensus and consulted a third review author. We contacted trial authors for missing information. We used the prevented fraction (PF) as a metric for evaluating the efficacy of the intervention. The PF is defined as the mean caries increment in controls minus mean caries increment in the treated group divided by mean caries increment in controls. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses when data could be pooled. We assessed heterogeneity in the results of the studies by examining forest plots and by using formal tests for homogeneity. We recorded adverse effects (fluorosis) when the studies provided relevant data.


We included 11 studies in the review involving 7196 children.In permanent teeth, when fluoride supplements were compared with no fluoride supplement (three studies), the use of fluoride supplements was associated with a 24% (95% confidence interval (CI) 16 to 33%) reduction in decayed, missing and filled surfaces (D(M)FS). The effect of fluoride supplements was unclear on deciduous or primary teeth. In one study, no caries-inhibiting effect was observed on deciduous teeth while in another study, the use of fluoride supplements was associated with a substantial reduction in caries increment.When fluoride supplements were compared with topical fluorides or with other preventive measures, there was no differential effect on permanent or deciduous teeth.The review found limited information on the adverse effects associated with the use of fluoride supplements.


This review suggests that the use of fluoride supplements is associated with a reduction in caries increment when compared with no fluoride supplement in permanent teeth. The effect of fluoride supplements was unclear on deciduous teeth. When compared with the administration of topical fluorides, no differential effect was observed. We rated 10 trials as being at unclear risk of bias and one at high risk of bias, and therefore the trials provide weak evidence about the efficacy of fluoride supplements.

PMID: 22161414

Int J Paediatr Dent. 2012 Feb 20. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2012.01231.x. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of the widespread use of fluorides on the occurrence of hidden caries in children.

Hashizume LN, Mathias TC, Cibils DM, Maltz M.


Department of Preventive and Social Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil Department of Preventive and Social Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.


International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2012 Background.  It has been suggested that the widespread use of fluorides could interfere in the prevalence of clinically undetected occlusal dentine caries. Aim.  The objective of this study was to determine the role of public water fluoridation and fluoride dentifrice on the prevalence of hidden caries in 8-10-year-old children. Design.  Clinical and radiographic data on schoolchildren collected in an epidemiologic study in Porto Alegre, Brazil, at two moments, 1975 (n = 228) and 1996 (n = 213), were analysed. Only the first permanent molars were studied. Only children of the 1996 examinations had benefited from fluoridated water soon after birth and had regular access to fluoride dentifrices. The criterion applied for hidden caries, when data from 1975 to 1996 were compared, was clinical sound surfaces that presented a radiolucent zone in the dentine. Results.  The prevalence of clinically sound surfaces and percentage of hidden caries was 0.51 and 26.4% in 1975 and 2.67 and 12.9% in 1996, respectively. The prevalence of hidden caries differed statistically between the two periods (P < 0.05). Conclusions.  The results do indicate that the widespread use of fluoride via public water supply and dentifrices decreases the prevalence of hidden caries.

© 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

PMID: 22348554

BMC Oral Health. 2012 Feb 10;12(1):4. [Epub ahead of print]

Adolescents’ perceptions of the aesthetic impact of dental fluorosis vs. other dental conditions in areas with and without water fluoridation.

McGrady MG, Ellwood RP, Goodwin M, Boothman N, Pretty IA.




The use of fluorides for caries prevention is well established but is linked with an increased risk of dental fluorosis, some of which may be considered to be aesthetically objectionable. Patient opinion should be considered when determining impact on aesthetics. The aim of this study was to assess participant rating of dental aesthetics (from photographic images) of 11 to 13 year olds participating in an epidemiological caries and fluorosis survey in a fluoridated and a non-fluoridated community in Northern England.


Consented participants were invited to rank in order of preference (appearance) a collage of 10 computer generated images on a touch-screen laptop. The images comprised an assortment of presentations of teeth that included white teeth, a spectrum of developmental defects of enamel and dental caries. Data were captured directly and exported into SPSS for analysis.


Data were available for 1553 participants. In general, there were no significant differences in the rank positions between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities, with the exception of teeth with caries and teeth with large demarcated opacities. Very white teeth had the highest rating in both localities. Overall, there was a trend for teeth with fluorosis to be ranked more favourably in the fluoridated community; for TF 1 and TF 2 this preference was significant (p < 0.001).


The results of this study suggest teeth that are uniformly very white have the highest preference. The rankings suggest teeth with a fluorosis score of TF 1 may not be considered aesthetically objectionable to this population and age group. The image depicting a tooth with caries and the image with large demarcated opacities were deemed to be the least favoured. Participant preference of images depicting fluorosis falls with increasing severity of fluorosis.

PMID: 22325055

Community Dent Health. 2011 Dec;28(4):292-6.

The effect of a modified fluoride toothpaste technique on buccal enamel caries in adults with high caries prevalence: a 2-year clinical trial.

Sonbul H, Merdad K, Birkhed D.


Department of Conservative Science, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.



To evaluate the preventive effect of a “modified fluoride (F) toothpaste technique” on the incidence and progression of buccal/ lingual enamel caries among Saudi adults with high caries prevalence.


Adults were randomly assigned to test and control groups. Test group patients were instructed to use the provided F toothpaste twice a day as follows: 1, use 2cm toothpaste; 2, brush for 2 min; 3, swish the toothpaste slurry around the teeth for about half a minute before spitting it out; and 4, no post-brushing water rinsing and no eating/drinking for 2hr. The patients in the control group (n = 57) were instructed to continue using their regular F toothpaste twice a day without any further instructions. The patients’ compliance in the test group was assessed after 2 years.


Of 175 adults, 113 completed the study. The test group (n = 56) had a lower enamel mean caries incidence 0.56 (sd 1.04) than the control group (n = 57), 1.01 (1.00) (p < 0.05), with a preventive fraction of 44%. There was no difference regarding enamel caries progression or arrested caries. The caries incidence in the test group was higher in the subgroup of patients who rinsed with water post-brushing and who only brushed once a day (p < 0.05).


The “modified fluoride toothpaste technique”, as practised over the 2 years in a Saudi population with high caries prevalence, had a preventive effect on the incidence of buccal/lingual enamel caries but not on the progression.

PMID: 22320068

Food Funct. 2012 Feb 8. [Epub ahead of print]

Protective effect of quercetin against sodium fluoride induced oxidative stress in rat’s heart.

Nabavi SF, Nabavi SM, Mirzaei M, Moghaddam AH.


Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. P.O. Box 19945-546.


The antioxidative and cardioprotective properties of quercetin were investigated against sodium fluoride (NaF) induced oxidative stress in rat hearts. Experimental rats were divided into five groups. The first group served as the untreated (normal) control. The second group received NaF at a dose of 600 ppm through drinking water for 1 week, and served as the toxin control. The third and fourth groups were exposed to quercetin (at the dose of 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 1 week) prior to NaF intoxication, and the fifth group was treated with vitamin C at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1) i.p., for 1 week prior to NaF intoxication and served as the positive control in the study. The activities of various antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, level of reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation end product were determined in the cardiac tissues of all the experimental animals. NaF intoxication significantly altered all the indices related to the pro-oxidant-antioxidant status of the heart; treatment with the active constituents prior to NaF administration, however, prevented these alterations. The combined results suggest that quercetin protects rat hearts from NaF-induced oxidative stress, probably via its antioxidant properties.

PMID: 22314573

J Med Food. 2008 Dec;11(4):733-40.

Terminalia arjuna protects mouse hearts against sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress.

Sinha M, Manna P, Sil PC.


Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, Kolkata, India.


Fluoride is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. In the current study we have investigated the antioxidative properties of an ethanol extract of the bark of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna ethanol extract [TAEE]) against sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced oxidative stress in murine heart. Experimental mice were divided into four groups. The first group served as the normal control. The second group received NaF at a dose of 600 ppm through drinking water for 1 week and served as the toxin control. The third group was exposed to TAEE (at a dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight for 1 week) prior to NaF intoxication, and the last group was treated with vitamin C at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 1 week prior to NaF intoxication and served as the positive control in the study. The activities of various antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase), levels of cellular metabolites, reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione, levels of lipid peroxidation end products, and protein carbonyl contents were determined in the cardiac tissues of all the experimental animals. NaF intoxication significantly altered all the indices related to the prooxidant-antioxidant status of the heart; treatment with the active constituents prior to NaF administration, however, prevented these alterations. In addition, the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay revealed that TAEE enhanced the cardiac intracellular antioxidant activity. Histological studies also demonstrated a cardioprotective action of TAEE. The combined results suggest that TAEE protects murine hearts from NaF-induced oxidative stress, probably via its antioxidant properties.

PMID: 19053867

Arch Toxicol. 2008 Mar;82(3):137-49. Epub 2008 Jan 16.

Arsenic-induced oxidative myocardial injury: protective role of arjunolic acid.

Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC.


Department of Chemistry, Bose Institute, 93/1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009, West Bengal, India.


Arsenic, one of the most harmful metalloids, is ubiquitous in the environment. The present study has been carried out to investigate the protective role of a triterpenoid saponin, arjunolic acid (AA) against arsenic-induced cardiac oxidative damage. In the study, NaAsO2 was chosen as the source of arsenic. The free radical scavenging activity and the effect of AA on the intracellular antioxidant power were determined from its 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, respectively. Oral administration of NaAsO2 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for 2 days caused significant accumulation of arsenic in cardiac tissues of the experimental mice in association with the reduction in cardiac antioxidant enzymes activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Arsenic intoxication also decreased the cardiac glutathione (GSH) and total thiol contents and increased the levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxidation end products and protein carbonyl content. Treatment with AA at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to NaAsO2 intoxication protected the cardiac tissue from arsenic-induced oxidative impairment. In addition to oxidative stress, arsenic administration increased total cholesterol level as well as the reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in the sera of the experimental mice. AA pretreatment, however, could prevent this hyperlipidemia. Histological studies on the ultrastructural changes in cardiac tissue supported the protective activity of AA also. Combining all, results suggest that AA could protect cardiac tissues against arsenic-induced oxidative stress probably due to its antioxidant property.

PMID: 18197399

Chemosphere. 2012 Mar;86(9):891-7. Epub 2011 Nov 21.

Effect of dietary fluoride derived from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) meal on growth of yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata).

Yoshitomi B, Nagano I.


Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd., Tokyo Innovation Center, Product Research and Development Center, 32-3 Nanakuni 1-Chome, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0991, Japan.


Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) is the most important cultured marine fish in Japan. Dietary fish meal for yellowtail in aquaculture was replaced with 0.0%, 15.4% and 100.0% Antarctic krill meal (KM0, KM15, and KM100) and with 0.0%, 15.4%, and 100.0% low-fluoride krill meal (LFK0, LFK15 and LFK100). The fish was fed to duplicate fish groups for 92d (KM trial) or 75d (LFK trial), and fish growth was monitored. Dietary fluoride (F(-)) concentrations (mgkg(-1)) were 110, 160, and 580 (KM0, KM15, and KM100, respectively) and 98, 120, and 190 (LFK0, LFK15, and LFK100, respectively). The growth during the experimental period, weight gain, feed intake, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency in fish fed the KM100 diet were markedly lower than the other experimental groups, which showed no marked differences in growth performance. After the experiment, dorsal muscle fluoride concentrations in each group were below the detectable limit (1mgkg(-1)), but vertebral bone fluoride concentrations increased with increasing proportion of KM to 655 (KM0), 870 (KM15), and 2150 (KM100) mgkg(-1). With increasing LFK in the feed, vertebral bone fluoride concentrations (mgkg(-1)) increased slightly from 500 (LFK0) to 655 (LFK15), and 695 (LFK100). No histopathological changes were detected in the liver tissue in any experimental group. It has been reported that the fluoride bioavailability was reduced with increasing water hardness, however, the dietary fluoride derived from KM exoskeleton accumulates in vertebral bones of marine fish with growth inhibition, as has already been shown for freshwater fish. Vertebral bone fluoride concentrations in two krill-eating Antarctic marine fish in the wild were 33000mgkg(-1) (Champsocephalus gunnari) and 15000mgkg(-1) (Notothenia rossii), but they did not show any adverse effect of growth. Therefore, fish bone fluoride accumulation apparently depends on fish species rather than the salinity of the habitat. Consequently, krill exoskeleton must be removed during the processing of Antarctic krill if indeed these krill are to be used as fish feed. However, LFK can completely replace dietary fish meal without apparent adverse effects.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

PMID: 22113059

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011 Sep;87(3):245-9. Epub 2011 Jun 18.

Fluoride contamination and fluorosis in rural community in the vicinity of a phosphate fertilizer factory in India.

Pandey J, Pandey U.


Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.


We studied chronic fluoride intoxication in 10 villages of Udaipur receiving F emissions from phosphate fertilizer factories. Although fluoride remained below permissible limit in most of the drinking water samples, the incidence of fluorosis in adults as well as in children was surprisingly high. Khemli appeared to be the most affected village (with >48% cases) where, about 93% of 2 h air samples contained fluoride above 2.0 μg m(-3) and crops and vegetable F ranged from 27.5 to 143.4 μg g(-1). Concentrations of fluoride and inorganic P in urine showed asynchrony and were well linked with prevalence of fluorosis. The study indicated that air-borne fluoride was the major factor for higher prevalence of fluorosis in these rural areas.

PMID: 21681395

Water Res. 2006 Sep;40(16):3015-22. Epub 2006 Aug 14.

Screening high-fluoride and high-arsenic drinking waters and surveying endemic fluorosis and arsenism in Shaanxi province in western China.

Zhu C, Bai G, Liu X, Li Y.


Shaanxi Provincial Institute for Endemic Disease Control, Xi’an 710003, China.

Erratum in

Water Res. 2007 Mar;41(5):1168.


The objectives of this study were to screen high-fluoride and high-arsenic drinking waters, to evaluate the effectiveness of fluoride-reducing projects and to assess the present condition of endemic fluorosis and arsenism in Shaanxi province in western China. For screening high-fluoride drinking waters, five water samples were collected from each selected village where dental fluorosis patients were detected in 8-12 year-old children. For evaluating the effectiveness of fluoride-reducing projects, four water samples were collected from each project at end-user level. Fluoride concentrations in water samples were measured by fluoride-selective electrode method or spectrophotometry. Dental fluorosis in children aging 8-12 years was examined according to Horowitz’s Tooth Surface Index of Fluorosis. Skeletal fluorosis in adults was detected clinically and radiologically according to Chinese Criteria of Clinical Diagnosis of Skeletal Fluorosis. For screening high-arsenic waters, 20 water samples were collected from each village which was selected from areas characterized by the geographic features to induce high-arsenic underground water, i.e., alluvial plains, ore mining or smelting areas, geothermal artesians, and thermal springs. Arsenic concentrations in water samples were determined by spectrophotometry or arsine generation atomic fluorospectrophotometry. Arsenism in adults aging 40-89 years was examined in villages with arsenic concentrations in drinking water above 0.05 mg/l according to Chinese Criteria for Classification of Endemic Arsenism Areas and Clinical Diagnoses of Endemic Arsenism. The results showed that the fluoride level of 7144 water samples was 1.17 +/- 0.93 mg/l. There were 3396 (47.6%) high-fluoride waters (fluoride level was above 1.0 mg/l) distributing in 786 (45.1%) villages, where about 0.8 million (50.0%) people inhabited. Additionally, the 1315 fluoride-reducing projects were studied. The fluoride level of the projects was 2.79 +/- 1.09 and 0.98 +/- 0.47 mg/l before and after building the projects, which remained at relatively lower level (1.03 +/- 0.47 mg/l). But there were still 58.0% of the projects providing drinking waters with fluoride concentrations beyond 1.0mg/l. The rates of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis were 38.2% and 11.8%, respectively. The arsenic level of 1732 water samples was 0.010 +/- 0.082 mg/l. There were 174 (14.9%) high-arsenic waters (arsenic level was above 0.010 mg/l) being detected, distributing in 41 (38.7%) villages. The arsenic level in 53 (4.5%) water samples was beyond 0.025 mg/l. There were 3 villages with arsenic level in drinking water beyond Chinese National Permissible Limits (0.050 mg/l), and the prevalence rate of arsenism reached 37.0% in these three villages, 3.7%, 22.2%, and 11.1% of subjects suffering from mild, moderate, and severe arsenism, respectively. Conclusively, the wide distribution of high-fluoride drinking waters contributes to the prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in Shaanxi province and the quality of fluoride-reducing projects should be further improved. Ore mining and smelting induces high-arsenic drinking waters, resulting in arsenism prevalence in Shang-luo city. Proper measures should be taken to deal with water pollution in the ore mining and smelting areas in order to solve the high-arsenic water problem in Shaanxi province.

PMID: 16904724

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012 Feb 5. [Epub ahead of print]

Combined Influence of Intermittent Exercise and Temperature Stress on the Modulation of Fluoride Toxicity.

Basha PM, Sujitha NS.


Bangalore University, Bangalore, Karnataka, India,


Regardless of the circumstantial evidences on the involvement of fluoride on the etiology and pathogenesis of fluorosis, several lines of evidences strongly indicate the influence of modulator factors such as duration of fluoride exposure, age, temperature, and physical activity. This study has been designed to investigate the combined influence of intermittent exercise and temperature stress on the modulation of fluoride toxicity. Three-month-old Wistar male rats were exposed to high sodium fluoride (600 ppm) through drinking water for 1 month and the rats were then subjected to swimming exercise at different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, 30°C, and 35°C). Oxidative stress indices analyzed showed fluoride-induced oxidative stress in biological tissues studied like brain, heart, liver, and kidney. Exercise regimen coupled with different temperatures were found to be effective in bringing the oxidative stress indices to near normal level indicating decreased free radical production which may be a compensatory mechanism to counteract against the detrimental effects of fluoride. Further, the deleterious effects of fluoride significantly reduced at 25°C and 30°C demonstrating that the thermoneutral temperatures were effective in reducing the toxicity level.

PMID: 22311083

Toxicology. 2008 Dec 5;254(1-2):61-7. Epub 2008 Sep 18.

Effects of fluoride on the tissue oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats: biochemical assays supported by IR spectroscopy data.

Chouhan S, Flora SJ.


Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474002, India.


The mechanism underlying the toxicity of fluoride still remains unknown. To investigate the effects of different doses of fluoride on blood and tissue oxidative stress and apoptosis, we exposed male rats to three doses of fluoride (10, 50 and 100ppm in drinking water) for a period of 10 weeks. The results suggested that exposure to 10ppm fluoride significantly increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood accompanied by a decrease in glutathione (GSH) level. No evidences of oxidative stress in soft tissues were seen. Fluoride (10ppm) also decreased GSH/GSSG ratio significantly. Contrary to expectation, 50 and 100ppm fluoride exposure did not produce a more pronounced toxicity in the soft tissues. However, we observed a significantly elevated concentration of ROS and depleted GSH level in blood. Exposure to fluoride did not produce any sign of apoptosis. To support our above mentioned biochemical observations and to suggest possible mechanism of action of fluoride, IR spectra of brain tissues were recorded. The results of these spectra indicated significant shift in the characteristic peak of -OH group in animals exposed to 10ppm fluoride however at higher doses, the shift was minimal. It can thus be concluded that fluoride-induced toxicity is mediated through oxidative stress particularly at a comparatively lower level of exposure however at the higher doses the mode of action still unclear and needs further investigation.

PMID: 18845224



  1. I hear ya. 🙂 I got a five stage reverse osmosis filtration system with dual holding tanks and a UV filter. I wrote about it in socially tolerable. Let me know if it’s okay to come back and link to the article on these comments. I don’t want to leave a link without asking. 🙂

  2. Absolutely. The whole point is to get the information out there.

  3. […] How Bad Is Fluoride In the Water For Long-Term Health … This entry was posted in Uncategorized and tagged alegre, dentistry, exercise, fluoride, king, porto, porto-alegre, research, water by admin. Bookmark the permalink. […]

  4. Sorry I took so long… Here’s that link about filtered water. 🙂

  5. Reblogged this on Random Revelations.

  6. Thanks for the link. I did a bit of my own research on the state of tap water and came up with the relatively newly recognized threat of DBPs. Another reason to filter. Here’s the post.

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